Over the years since the beginning of mankind till the present day, humans have discovered many new sciences and have gradually become more and more equipped with various skills of surviving. The art of warfare, harvesting, building, language, medicine, magic, and mathematics etc had progressed before the dawn of Islam and the revelation of the ultimate guidance. Some were taught by Prophets such as making armour, writing, some through experience and experiments such as medicine, and some taught by Jinn's such as magic, fortune telling etc. The Quran is a manual and a guide to how to use these arts and sciences and outlines what is beneficial and what is harmful, both spiritually and physically.
Medicine was common amongst the Sahabas. They and the Prophet both used it. Before Islam, they used unlawful elements and believed that the actual medicine does the cure. However, Islam did not forbid it totally but instead put restrictions on it.
Narrated in Muslim by Jaabir that the Prophet said:
“For every illness there is a cure. When the cure of the illness is found then he is cured with the order of Allah).” i.e. Allah is the one who cures.
In a narration of Abu Dawood, the Prophet said:
“Cure yourself and don't cure with Haraam things.”
Similarly conducting charms was common and an effective method of curing illnesses in the time of the Sahabah. It used to work also. Words have a very strong spiritual and mental impact on people. A harsh word makes a person explode with anger. Similarly, illnesses are also a natural living thing and Allah has placed different cures for different illnesses in different ways as part of the natural law. Therefore, some words do affect some illnesses as they affect humans. Prophet put some restrictions on medicine; he also put restrictions on practising charms but left it permissible generally. This is because in the days of ignorance, people used to depend on it and they used satanic words. The Prophet forbade it.
In Abu Dawood, ibn Mas'ood narrates that the Prophet saying:
“Indeed, Charms and talisman (a lucky charm) are shirk.”
Afterwards, when the Imaan of the Sahabas became stable and they were able to clearly differentiate from the words of Kufr, the Prophet gave them permission to do practise Charms as a cure for medicine. Therefore, the first Hadith of prohibition is Mansooq due to the Hadith of Jaabir which is related in Muslim.
The Prophet prohibited Ruqa, then Imran bin Hazm came and said, “We used to do Ruqa from scorpions.” The Prophet heard it and said, “I do not see any problem with it, whoever amongst you can benefit his brother should do so.”
The Hadith in which the Prophet said that whoever does branding i.e. (Burning the cut) or does Charms has indeed gone out of Tawwakul is based on the teaching of complete Tawwakul. If this Hadith was to be used for the prohibition of Charms, then it would mean that Branding should be prohibited as well, whereas it is agreed upon that is permissible for medical reasons, as it is reported in Muslim Shareef. The Prophet branded Ubay . If branding is permissible then Charms is permissible also. To support this, there is an even stronger Hadith in Tirmizi Shareef that the Prophet used to take protection from Jinn's and the Evil eye.
Now another issue arises about Taweez. Some people take just the apparent meaning of the Hadith that Charms and Talisman and Taweez is Shirk, and do not analyse it by considering the other Hadith. The other group of people use the same argument as Ruqa and say that the only difference between them is that one is done orally and the other on paper. They take the Hadith of Abdullah ibn Umar that he used to teach his mature children the Masnoon Ta-awuz and write it for the immature ones and tie it on their necks. It is narrated in Abu Dawood.
The majority of the scholars say that the Taweez and Blowing is permissible with three strict conditions. Although they all accept that it is preferred not to use it and only restricted it to the Dua's which are proven from the Hadith, as it is a sign of complete Tawwakul just like not using medication is a sign of Tawwakul. The three conditions are;
1) That there is not any word of Kufr or names of Jinns in it. 2) It should be in a recognised language. 3) One shouldn't believe that the Taweez itself does the cure but through the blessing of Allah's name, Allah is the only one who cures.
Hajaj ibn Arta asked Ata ibn Rabah in regards to Taweez. He said, “I did not hear of its prohibition except from you Iraqis.” He said the way using medication from experience is permissible providing the medicine is Halal, using different Ayahs (verses) and Duas for various illnesses from experience is also permissible.
In the Qur'an, Allah mentions that there a cure in honey. The Prophet said Black Seed Oil is a cure for all diseases. Inspite of these Masnoon medications, everyone uses other medications also. In the Hadith about the using of Black Seed Oil and honey, it has not been mentioned that the Muslim physicians use them in different ways for specific illnesses. Similarly, the pious scholars who have insight into the Qur'an have seen from their experience of the salaf that when a certain verse which has more similarity with the illness in terms of its meaning works more quickly and effectively Inspite of Surah Fatiha being a general cure.
It is also mentioned in Ibn Katheer and Fathul Majeed by Sheikh Abdur Raheem Al Sheikh, page 315, authenticated by Sheikh bin Baz that ibn Abi Saleem said that if the verse, ‘When they threw the stick of Musa , he said, “What you have come with is magic.”- till the end and another two verses of the same meaning is read and water is poured over the person afflicted by magic, then the magic will be cured (inshallah). You see, these verses are about Musa and the magicians. Because it has something in common with magic, it was used and it worked.
It is mentioned in the book ‘Ilaj-e-Sihr' by Sheikh Abu Bakr Al Hanbali that Sheikh Ibn Qayam said that he saw Sheikh ibn Taymiya taking Jinns out of people many times. If the Jinn was rebellious, he would recite the verse, “Do you think that we have only created you in veil?” in the ears of the person. And then hit him with a stick and the person would be cured. He mentions that once Sheikh ibn Taymiya was beating a person afflicted by a Jinn, until the Jinn shouted, “I love him.” The Sheikh said, “Well, he doesn't love you.” Then the Jinn said, “Ok then, I will leave because of your respect.” The Sheikh said, “No! but with obedience of Allah and His Messenger .”
The point is that the Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet is a medicine and cure for all spiritual and physical illnesses. A person should try to be punctual in reciting the prayers taught by the prophets in order to be protected from evil. If someone cannot read or is too young, then it is better to write the verse and wear it as a Taweez.
Finally, for all of this to work depends entirely on either the afflicted persons level of Imaan, or the person who is doing the treatment. If a person has connection with Allah then he doesn't even need to recite anything, he can just wipe his hand over the afflicted area or just say, “Come out, O enemy of Allah.”
It is reported in Musnad Ahmed that a boy was afflicted, the Prophet just said, “Get out!”
It is narrated by Bukhari that once Abu Huraira was wrestling with a Shaytaan, and this Shaytaan was trying to steal from the Baitul Maal. He didn't have to read anything, but because of his spirituality, he overpowered the Jinn three times.